6. Investments and Revenues

Exchange rates


Revenues are given in Euros adjusted for purchasing power (EUR/PPP) to account for differences in price levels across the countries.


Nominal exchange rates: 

   - Source: European Central Bank

   - Average exchange rate: 1 January - 31 December of each year


Purchasing power parity (PPP):  

   - Source: Eurostat, Purchasing power parities, price level indices and real expenditures for ESA 2010 aggregates

   - EUR/PPP rates for each country are calculated based on price levels relative to EU27_2020=1