6. Investments and Revenues

Exchange rates

Revenues are given in Euros adjusted for purchasing power (EUR/PPP) to account for differences in price levels across the countries.

Nominal exchange rates:

-Source: European Central Bank
-Average exchange rate: 1 January - 31 December 2018

 Nominal exchange rates

Purchasing power parity (PPP):

-Source: Eurostat, Purchasing power parities, price level indices and real expenditures for ESA 2010 aggregates
-Since 2018 PPP figures are not yet available, the figures for 2017 are used.
-EUR/PPP rates for each country are calculated based on price levels relative to EU28.

Purchasing power parity (PPP)